On The Indigenisation of Education

This past Friday was the fourth annual “Orange Shirt Day” in schools across BC. This annual observance, coupled with the ushering in of BC’s new curriculum provides a wonderful opportunity to reflect on the movement to indigenise education.

Orange shirt day began in 2013 as a day to highlight the terrible treatment of First Nations students in residential schools across Canada. It was inspired by Phyllis Webstad, a Stswecem’c Xgat’tem First Nation elder in Williams Lake, BC, and by her experience at residential school in 1973, when she was only 6 years old. As a young girl, upon entering the school, she was stripped of her prized orange shirt. Similarly, the identity of many First Nations students was stripped away as a result of their horrible experiences in residential schools across the country.

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                  Orange Shirt Day T-Shirt

Many people in North Vancouver don’t realize we had our own residential school here in our community. More than 2000 First Nation students were sent to St. Paul’s Indian Residential school, which was once located on Keith Road where St. Thomas Aquinas school now stands today. I think it’s important to know, as a North Vancouverite, that these schools were not just in far-flung, remote locations, but were embedded and accepted in our very own community at one time.

The recent move to indigenize BC’s curriculum came about in response to Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s 94 ‘calls to action’. These 94 policies and programs are intended to help repair the harm caused by residential schools and move our communities forward with the reconciliation process.

Among the calls to action included points specific to education, including making, “age-appropriate curriculum on residential schools, Treaties and Aboriginal peoples’ historical and contemporary contributions to Canada a mandatory education requirement,” and, “developing and implementing … curriculum and learning resources on Aboriginal peoples in Canadian history, and the history and legacy of residential schools.”

And so this year we continue our good work to try and find ways to incorporate indigenous teachings and ways of learning. It’s a sensitive task, and one that I believe deserves our most earnest and honest efforts. The path, however, is far from straight. There are examples that illustrate how muddled the path can become, such as Ecole Lajoie in Montreal where teachers and grade 3 students learning about indigenous history were given headdresses to wear. Unbeknownst to those teachers, it is seen as disrespectful for non-First Nations people to wear headdresses, as there is a cultural and spiritual significance associated with them. This is not to suggest, however, that we shouldn’t be trying. Sometimes we are too afraid of offending or saying the wrong thing that we do nothing. Having good intentions is noble, but it is equally as important to make sure the steps we are taking are culturally sensitive and authentic means of closing the reconciliatory gap.

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                 8 Aboriginal Ways of Learning

So what are some positive ways we can genuinely contribute to this process of indigenizing education for our students? To provide us with inspiration, we can begin by examining the 8 aboriginal ways of learning. This is a pedagogical framework that allows teachers to include aboriginal perspectives by using aboriginal learning techniques, and includes the following:

  1. Story Sharing: Approaching learning through narrative.
  2. Learning Maps: explicitly mapping or visualizing processes.
  3. Non-Verbal: Applying intra-personal and kinesthetic skills to thinking and learning.
  4. Symbols and images: Using images and metaphors to understand concepts and content.
  5. Land-links: Place-based learning, linking content to local land and place.
  6. Non-linear: Producing innovations and understanding by thinking laterally.
  7. Deconstruct / Reconstruct: Modeling and scaffolding, working from wholes to parts. Begin with the whole structure, rather than a series of sequenced steps.
  8. Community Links: Centering local viewpoints, applying learning for community benefit.

Some of these techniques you likely already recognize from your own classroom, or other classrooms you’ve been in. I recently had a conversation with a friend of mine taking his MBA at Simon Fraser University and he was telling me how his first class on leadership was all about the power of story telling, and how leaders can communicate messages more clearly and memorably through story. It struck me as interesting how one of the most rigorously academic programs one can take draws inspiration, perhaps unknowingly, from aboriginal oral tradition.

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   Students Creating ‘Sound Maps’

Simply being aware of the aboriginal ways of learning has allowed me to recognize it much more often in the daily teaching and learning practices I observe. Two weeks ago our school hosted a retreat for grade 8 students just entering high school. We took them up to our local outdoor school in Cheakamus for an overnight camp experience filled with workshops, many of which were infused with aboriginal ways of learning. In one exercise the students sat quietly, spaced out from their peers, drawing a sound map using symbols to represent what they heard around them. It was such a great activity, and blended so many of the ideas of aboriginal teaching together by being non-verbal, connecting with nature, using symbols and images, and by writing on a learning map. Not to mention the meditative qualities and social-emotional benefits that space and silence in a natural setting with peers provided.

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           Adina Williams, Key Note Speaker

Other examples in recent memory have been even more overt. At our schools “Heart Talks” assembly last year we had a remarkable keynote speaker named Adina Williams come and share her story of growing up as a member of the Squamish Nation in North Vancouver. We also had some of our English 11 classes learn a few words and phrases in traditional Squamish language. What an incredibly authentic learning experience, and a great opportunity for local First Nation youth to take a leadership role and pride in sharing their ancestral language. Yet another central tenet of aboriginal ways of learning relates to experiential learning – a concept I’ve already blogged about recently as an important way to connect students learning to their surroundings. These are all remarkable ways to help build community understanding and make a tangible effort to bridge that reconciliatory divide.

I’ve been trying to think of new and different ways to engage students in thoughtful reflection of the importance of learning about aboriginal communities, and in doing so have realized that the circumstances we find ourselves in are actually replicated similarly in other areas of the world. The past two summers I’ve taken students on study abroad tours to Australia, where the indigenous aborigines there have also suffered through generations of mistreatment, which to some extent still continues today. And the students who were with me were instantly able to recognize the parallels between aborigine and First Nation communities. On a related note, for the past 7 years I’ve also led our school’s annual Japan exchange. This year, and for the first time in over 25 years of its existence, I have altered our trip itinerary with the express purpose of exploring indigenous culture in Japan. Our route this year will now take us northwards to Hokkaido where we learn about the culture and traditions of Japan’s first people – the Ainu. It is my hope that we can, with our students, draw more parallels between the indigenous culture we find there and some of the traditions and ways of learning we see in First Nations culture. I’m excited to use this as yet one more opportunity to broaden students’ understanding of First Peoples.

The benefits to teaching using aboriginal ways of learning are many, and go far beyond the moral duty we have to try and heal our communities. One of the most important elements, I believe, is that the development of empathy in students can benefit everyone as we foster a more caring, peaceful and civil society.

The indigenization of education in BC through the new curriculum will take on many forms.   It’s important that we, as educators, and indeed as a wider community, continue to make every effort to build bridges and reconcile ourselves with our First Nations neighbours. Indigenous ways of learning are one way we can start that process in our schools.  As an educator I’m excited to see where this conversation takes us and am confident it will be, invariable, to a better place.

In Praise of Team Teaching

Teaching is a social art. The interaction between teachers and students, and students with students is a process we as educators are always trying to find ways to refine. We’ve all heard about the push away from ‘the sage on the stage’ to ‘the guide on the side’, but hopefully it will come as no surprise to people that teaching, does, in fact, at some point require being in front of your students imparting some pearls of wisdom. There’s a reason the traditional lecture is still used in many post-secondary classes. It is still one of the most efficient ways to pack a lot of information into a lesson. But if we’re being honest, listening to one person deliver a monologue on any topic has its limits. If you’ve watched one of the many popular TED talks videos, or been to a TED event yourself you know that the majority of these engaging talks are less than 20 minutes in length. Listening to one voice for any longer can easily become tedious. And here, I would suggest, we find the first reason that team teaching is a technique that should be employed more often.

Two teachers collaborating to tackle a single topic can provide a much more interesting dynamic than any single teacher could. The difference in intonation, inflection and cadence of each speaker can reinvigorate a lesson. Moreover, with each teacher giving their unique perspective on the topic, greater insight and expertise is provided. Some speakers are better at giving concise explanations, while another may teach using anecdotes and stories. In a team teaching setting there’s room for both.

When delivering a lesson solo it can be easy for your plan to be side-tracked, or for you to lose focus on the intended outcomes. Having a second teacher to help guide things back on course can be a huge benefit.   In my experience, class discussions led by two teachers tend to be richer, as having a second ‘expert’ opinion and a second set of rich life experiences can help inform the conversation. Two teachers are able to debate opposing sides of an issue, build upon each others points and can even correct or clarify each others facts thereby ensuring students have an accurate understanding. Clearly a high level of trust and excellent rapport needs to exist between team teachers if they are going to be successful.

A team teaching scenario can provide the potential to pair a novice teacher with a more veteran teacher. Teaching is a profession that benefits immensely from having mentorship relationships. Too often new teachers are thrust unprepared into their first year classroom and are only able to seek out fleeting guidance during lunchtime or afterschool if any colleagues are available.   The mentorship possibilities alone have the potential to raise the quality of teaching for all students.

Another pedagogical advantage is the potential for small group activities. This is made possible by the decrease in the student to teacher ratio. In cases where team-teaching involves even more than two teachers, jigsaw activities and intense small group discussions with increased student engagement and accountability are possibilities. Cross-curricular possibilities abound, with team-teacher pairs emphasizing the connections during a lesson between each of their curricular expertise areas.

Simon and I team teaching in Central Park, New York
Simon and I team teaching in Central Park, New York

My best lessons are the ones I have done in a team-teaching environment. During summer I teach with MEI Academy, a study-abroad program that provides lessons on location around the world. The vast majority of the lessons I deliver during that time are done with a teaching partner. For the last 3 years I’ve been teaching with a remarkable educator and friend named Simon. In preparing together for lessons we’re able to identify which instructional elements each of us should be emphasizing. For example, in a business lesson on game theory I will make sure I’m prepared to discuss Nash Equilibrium and the prisoner’s dilemma, while Simon will make sure he has polished up the accompanying interactive activity which will sharpen the students understanding. In a lesson on debate perhaps I will focus on pathos, while Simon focuses on discussing logos or ethos. Each of us is responsible for making sure a particular element of the lesson is refined, while both being permitted to also contribute to the piece the other is preparing. By focusing on preparing only a portion of the lesson, the prep time required is actually decreased while the quality of instruction is simultaneously enhanced. And with practice and over time the lessons become seamless with each of us contributing our equal part.  In a time when we are, more than ever, asking our students to integrate, synthesize and think critically, having two teachers who are able model the integration of each other’s ideas in front of the class serves as a powerful example.

Simon and I team teaching at the Pantheon in Paris
Simon and I team teaching at the Pantheon in Paris

Simon is a far more entertaining speaker than I am, so I’m thankful when he’s able to interject with an amusing anecdote or story that supports the learning objectives I’m trying to achieve with the students. Having two teachers with different personalities also means we are connecting with the students in two distinctly unique ways. The importance of the teacher-student relationship has been increasingly emphasized as vital for student achievement. This end is clearly supported by having two teachers who are able to cultivate those relationships in different ways.

So why is team-teaching not more widely used? Firstly, it is not economical. For arguments sake let’s say the average classroom holds 30 students. To have two teachers instruct 30 students costs double the price a solo teacher would. “So why not double the space?” you ask. I remember there was a time when this used to be done. At Handsworth we used to have something called ‘large group’, where 60 students would pile into a double sized classroom and 2 teachers would deliver a lesson together. It was great. Students who were all going to be tested on the same content could be sure they weren’t missing something the other students were getting in another teachers class because they were all learning it in the same place at the same time. The novice teachers could see how the senior teachers taught the subject and everyone would be on the same page in terms of the assessment and expectations of the students. But, alas, it happens no more. The complexities of scheduling simultaneous blocks of the same class were such that students ended up taking the class at differing times, and so synchronizing a ‘large group’ appeared to become impossible. And with time it seems that scenario has become a lost discussion. Finally, the large group room that was once used has since been converted into two separate classrooms – a consequence of a school at capacity looking for more instructional space. I suspect the need for smaller separate spaces is similar in other schools that also follow the traditional classroom model.

Many teachers themselves are reluctant to try team-teaching. It falls outside the comfort zone of many who have long held routines and teach their subject the way they’ve always taught it. It takes a teacher who is willing to be vulnerable and not worried about being judged to have a colleague in their classroom while they teach. As professionals, some of us still have this fear that we might be inadequate at what we’re doing, or perhaps ‘behind the times’. And opening the door to another teacher is to expose all our instructional warts. My experience, however, has been that I work with remarkable teachers. And we have far more to learn from each other’s classrooms than we have to worry about. Team-teaching celebrates the great things each teacher has to bring to the table, and doesn’t place a value judgement on what’s not working – because to teach with a partner is to demonstrate a willingness to improve. I hope to have the opportunity to team-teach more in the future as I believe collaborating with colleagues raises the quality of the educational experience for students.